Articles by Muhammad Rafiq

Economic Resilience of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has emerged as the biggest success story in the region, since the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991. Transitioning from a central command economy to a market system has been an epic advancement. The salient feature of the economic development achieved by Kazakhstan is its economic resilience. The ability to recover quickly from…

China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan Railway Corridor to Boost Regional Cooperation

The China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan Railway Corridor, generally referred as CKU, is expected to start in 2023 after completion of feasibility study this year. The project was dormant since 1997. However, amid shifting supply chains in the wake of the Russian special military operation in Ukraine, the CKU has been revitalized. Therefore, all three parties to the project…

Kazakhstan: A Journey from Land-Locked to Land-Linked Destination

A land-locked country has a geographical limitation of not having its territory connected to the ocean. Kazakhstan is the largest land-locked country in the world that has the most distant spot from the oceans. Kazakhstan is among 48 countries that are deprived of access to the sea. Nearly 90 percent of world trade is carried…

Kazakhstan: A Global Investment Hub

When Kazakhstan declared its independence in 1991, the country’s policy makers realized the vital importance of a vibrant investment policy as a driver of sustainable economic growth. As a result, the country was able to attract nearly $320 billion of foreign direct investment (FDI) over a duration of three decades. Kazakhstan accounts for 70 percent…

Economic Gains of Kazakhstan in Wake of Shifting Supply Chains

The Russia-Ukraine conflict has triggered some major shifts in the supply chains of West Europe, Eurasia, Central Asia, Caucasus and South Asia. This shuffle of the supply chain has considerable impact on global trade and commerce. Kazakhstan has its gifted landscape with an extensive network of rail, road, air and marine corridors and can transcend…