Articles by Shirin Akiner

Kazakhstan Chairs Working Group of Preparatory Commission for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

NUR-SULTAN – This year marks the 30th anniversary of the closure of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. On August 29, 1991, Kazakh First President Nursultan Nazarbayev signed a historical document, a decree on the closure of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.  The international community, recognizing the contribution of Kazakhstan in strengthening the non-proliferation regime of…

Turkmenistan’s Pipeline Strategy: Building a Diversified Export Infrastructure

Turkmenistan has huge mineral wealth, including reserves of natural gas that are estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. However, when the country became independent, it lacked an export infrastructure. The existing gas pipelines formed part of the Central Asia-Centre network, which ran from Turkmenistan through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to Russia and the…